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The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Integrated Risk Assessment System (IRIS) is currently developing a new inorganic As assessment that considers life stage susceptibility. Mortality Associated with Early Life Exposure to Arsenic.

Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the US EPA. Craig Steinmaus, California Environmental Protection Agency, Berkeley, CA.

Building AOPs for Arsenic-Induced Developmental Outcomes for Improved Risk Assessment.

The session will also attempt to address the mechanism of actions (MOA) by which As could induce or exacerbate these disease endpoints during a critical window of susceptibility.In recent years, concerns over high cost, long study duration, and ethical considerations have led to increasing pressure to Replace, Reduce, and Refine the use of animal models in toxicity testing.Institution of the “Three Rs” has propelled the use of models.Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Arsenic Exposure.Margaret Karagas, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH.

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